View the common conversion factors for energy use in Ireland.
Energy is delivered in many different fuels and sources and can be expressed in terms of volume, mass, energy or emissions. Using the below conversion factors, it is possible to express each fuel or energy source in common units of energy or emissions so that they can be compared and aggregated.
Energy unit types
- Joule(J): Joule is the international unit of energy
- Kilowatt hour (kWh): This is the conventional unit of energy that electricity is measured by and charged for commercially.
- Tonne of oil equivalent (toe): This is the conventional standardised unit of energy and is defined on the basis of a tonne of oil having a net calorific value of 41,868 kj/kg. A related unit is the kilogram of oil equivalent (kgoe), where 1 kgoe=103 toe.
Energy conversion factors
The conversion of a fuel quantity from physical units into energy units requires a conversion factor which expresses the heat obtained from one unit of the fuel. This conversion factor is termed the calorific value or heating value of the fuel.
|Fuel||Net Calorific Value toe/t||Net Calorific Value MJ/t|
|Gasoline / Petrol||1.0650||44,589|
|Gasoil / Diesel||1.0344||43,308|
|Residual Fuel Oil / Fuel Oil||0.9849||41,236|
|Fuel||Net Calorific Value MJ/m³|
The table below shows emission factors for CO2 per unit of energy for specific fuels.
|Fuel||tCO₂/TJ (NCV)||g CO₂/kWh (NCV)|
|Gasoline / Petrol||70.0||251.9|
|Gasoil / Diesel||73.3||263.9|
|Residual Oil / Fuel Oil||76.0||273.6|
|Solid Fuels and Derivatives|
Conversion from volume (litres) to mass (tonnes) for liquid fuels requires the densities of the liquids, with the most common fuels shown here.
|Fuel||Density (in litres/tonnes)|
|Diesel / Gasoil||1183|
|Heavy Fuel Oil||1062|
|Pure Plant Oil||1087|
|*Assumes a mixture of 70% propane & 30% butane by mass|
Primary energy conversion factors
Energy consumption can be expressed as total final consumption (TFC) or total primary energy requirement (TPER). TPER accounts for the energy that is consumed and/or lost in transformation, transmission and distribution processes. It is calculated by applying conversion factors, which vary by fuel type, to TFC values. The table below shows the conversion factors for 2019. Historic conversion factors can be downloaded here.
|Fuel||2019 conversion factor|
|Biogas / landfill gas||1.0|
|Light, medium & heavy fuel oils||1.1|
|Marked diesel, road diesel & petrol||1.1|
|Pure biodiesel / bioethanol||1.1|
|Wood briquettes / chips / logs / pellets||1.1|